Freire, Elizabeth and Di Malta, Gina (2024). Empathy. In: Di Malta, Gina; Cooper, Mick; Gololob, Yana; O'Hara, Maureen and Stephen, Susan eds. The Handbook of Person-Centred Psychotherapy and Counselling (3rd ed.). London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic (In Press).

URL: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/handbook-of-personce...


Empathy is one of Rogers’ (1957) six conditions for therapeutic change. Empathy consists of a type of understanding where the psychotherapist lays aside all perceptions from an external frame of reference and assumes the client’s frame of reference to understand them from that standpoint. Empathy is arguably a key construct in the process of change as shown by its consistent association with psychotherapy outcomes. It is a complex process theorized to be intertwined with the other core conditions of congruence and unconditional positive regard.

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