Context-adaptive learning designs by using semantic web services

Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio and Domingue, John (2007). Context-adaptive learning designs by using semantic web services. Journal of Interactive Media in Education




IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a promising technology aimed at supporting learning processes. IMS-LD packages contain the learning process metadata as well as the learning resources. However, the allocation of resources - whether data or services - within the learning design is done manually at design-time on the basis of the subjective appraisals of a learning designer. Since the actual learning context is known at runtime only, IMS-LD applications cannot adapt to a specific context or learner. Therefore, the reusability is limited and high development costs have to be taken into account to support a variety of contexts. To overcome these issues, we propose a highly dynamic approach based on Semantic Web Services (SWS) technology. Our aim is moving from the current data- and metadata-based to a context-adaptive service-orientated paradigm We introduce semantic descriptions of a learning process in terms of user objectives (learning goals) to abstract from any specific metadata standards and used learning resources. At runtime, learning goals are accomplished by automatically selecting and invoking the services that fit the actual user needs and process contexts. As a result, we obtain a dynamic adaptation to different contexts at runtime. Semantic mappings from our standard-independent process models will enable the automatic development of versatile, reusable IMS-LD applications as well as the reusability across multiple metadata standards. To illustrate our approach, we describe a prototype application based on our principles.

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