On the Scarcity of Dense Cores ( n > 105 cm −3 ) in High-latitude Planck Galactic Cold Clumps

Xu, Fengwei; Wang, Ke; Liu, Tie; Eden, David; Liu, Xunchuan; Juvela, Mika; He, Jinhua; Johnstone, Doug; Goldsmith, Paul; Garay, Guido; Wu, Yuefang; Soam, Archana; Traficante, Alessio; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Falgarone, Edith; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Hirano, Naomi; Doi, Yasuo; Kwon, Woojin; White, Glenn J.; Whitworth, Anthony; Sanhueza, Patricio; Rawlings, Mark G.; Alina, Dana; Ren, Zhiyuan; Lee, Chang Won; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhou, Jianjun; Lai, Shih-Ping; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Gu, Qilao; Chakali, Eswaraiah; Zhu, Lei; Mardones, Diego and Tóth, L. Viktor (2024). On the Scarcity of Dense Cores ( n > 105 cm −3 ) in High-latitude Planck Galactic Cold Clumps. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 963, article no. L9.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ad21e6


High-latitude (∣b∣ > 30°) molecular clouds have virial parameters that exceed 1, but whether these clouds can form stars has not been studied systematically. Using JCMT SCUBA-2 archival data, we surveyed 70 fields that target high-latitude Planck Galactic cold clumps (HLPCs) to find dense cores with density of 105–106 cm−3 and size of <0.1 pc. The sample benefits from both the representativeness of the parent sample and its coverage of the densest clumps at the high column density end (>1 × 1021 cm−2). At an average rms of 15 mJy beam−1, we detected Galactic dense cores in only one field, G6.04+36.77 (L183) while also identifying 12 extragalactic objects and two young stellar objects. Compared to the low-latitude clumps, dense cores are scarce in HLPCs. With synthetic observations, the densities of cores are constrained to be n c ≲ 105 cm−3 should they exist in HLPCs. Low-latitude clumps, Taurus clumps, and HLPCs form a sequence where a higher virial parameter corresponds to a lower dense-core detection rate. If HLPCs were affected by the Local Bubble, the scarcity should favor turbulence-inhibited rather than supernova-driven star formation. Studies of the formation mechanism of the L183 molecular cloud are warranted.

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