Validation of Chinese version of the 5-item WHO well-being index in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Du, Jianhua; Jiang, Yinan; Lloyd, Cathy; Sartorius, Norman; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Weigang; Wei, Jing and Hong, Xia (2023). Validation of Chinese version of the 5-item WHO well-being index in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. BMC Psychiatry, 23, article no. 890.



Background: For better disease management and improved prognosis, early identification of co-morbid depression in diabetic patients is warranted. the WHO-5 well-being index (WHO-5) has been used to screen for depression in diabetic patients, and its Chinese version (WHO-5-C) has been validated. However, its psychometric properties remain to be further validated in the type 2 diabetes patient population. The aim of our study was to examine the reliability and validity of the WHO-5-C in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 patients from July 2014 to March 2015. All patients should complete the WHO-5-C, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the 20-item Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID-20), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I), and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Internal consistency of WHO-5 was revealed by Cronbach’s alpha, and constructive validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Relationship with PHQ-9, HAM-D, and PAID-20 was examined for concurrent validity, and ROC analysis was performed for criterion validity.
Results: The WHO-5-C presented satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88). CFA confirmed the unidimensional factor structure of WHO-5-C. The WHO-5-C had significant negative correlation with HAM-D (r = -0.610), PHQ-9 (r = -0.694) and PAID-20 (r = -0.466), confirming good concurrent validity. Using M.I.N.I as the gold standard, the cut-off value of WHO-5-C was 42, with a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.75.
Conclusion: The WHO-5-C holds satisfactory reliability and validity that is suitable for depression screening in type 2 diabetes patients as a short and convenient instrument.

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