Constraining the formation history of the TOI-1338/BEBOP-1 circumbinary planetary system

Coleman, Gavin A L; Nelson, Richard P; Triaud, Amaury H M J and Standing, Matthew R. (2023). Constraining the formation history of the TOI-1338/BEBOP-1 circumbinary planetary system. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 527(1) pp. 414–427.



The recent discovery of multiple planets in the circumbinary system TOI-1338/BEBOP-1 raises questions about how such a system formed. The formation of the system was briefly explored in the discovery paper, but only to answer the question do current pebble accretion models have the potential to explain the origin of the system? We use a global model of circumbinary planet formation that utilises N-body simulations, including prescriptions for planet migration, gas and pebble accretion, and interactions with a circumbinary disc, to explore the disc parameters that could have led to the formation of the TOI-1338/BEBOP-1 system. With the disc lifetime being the main factor in determining how planets form, we limit our parameter space to those that determine the disc lifetime. These are: the strength of turbulence in the disc, the initial disc mass, and the strength of the external radiation field that launches photoevaporative winds. When comparing the simulated systems to TOI-1338/BEBOP-1, we find that only discs with low levels of turbulence are able to produce similar systems. The radiation environment has a large effect on the types of planetary systems that form, whilst the initial disc mass only has limited impact since the majority of planetary growth occurs early in the disc lifetime. With the most TOI-1338/BEBOP-1 like systems all occupying similar regions of parameter space, our study shows that observed circumbinary planetary systems can potentially constrain the properties of planet forming discs.

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