Education 4.0 in higher education and computer science: A systematic review

Rienties, Bart; Ferguson, Rebecca; Gonda, Dalibor; Hajdin, Goran; Herodotou, Christothea; Iniesto, Francisco; Llorens Garcia, Ariadna; Muccini, Henry; Sargent, Julia; Virkus, Sirje and Isidori, Maria Vittoria (2023). Education 4.0 in higher education and computer science: A systematic review. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 31(5) pp. 1339–1357.



Education 4.0 is a recently introduced concept focused on innovation, novelty, use of technology and connections with employment and industry. In particular, in engineering disciplines like computer science (CS) it is essential that educators keep up to date with industry developments. Indeed, how CS educators effectively design and implement innovative teaching and learning deserves more systematic attention. This study aims to catalogue and synthesise learning design approaches to teaching and learning within CS: (1) Which innovative pedagogic approaches are used in teaching of CS? (2) Which approaches align with Education 4.0? (3) What skills and competences do educators require to align CS teaching with Education 4.0? Our systematic literature review (SLR) included CS papers published between 2016 and 2020. Two hundred and thirty one studies were identified of which 66 were included in the final phase, which were coded by a multidisciplinary team. The findings indicated that many CS educators included Education 4.0 learning design elements. We found a clear distinctive three cluster solution: (1) EDU4 light, (2) project based/hands on learning and (3) full EDU4 (refer to Reference [7] conceptualisation, while Education 4.0 refers to our own definition [Reference 71]. These findings suggest three broad flavours when designing innovative CS practices, which might help educators align their practice.

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