Charge Coupled Devices

Bautz, M. W.; Holland, A. D. and Lumb, D. H. (2023). Charge Coupled Devices. In: Bambi, C. and Santangelo, A. eds. Handbook of X-ray and Gamma-ray Astrophysics. Singapore: Springer, pp. 1–38.



CCDs have been “workhorse” detectors providing imaging photon counting with spectroscopy at the prime focus of X-ray telescopes for almost three decades, and in the case of the “great observatories” of XMM-Newton and Chandra have been returning science data for over 20 years. The CCD optimized for X-ray detection is often different from its variant working in the visible light region. This chapter describes the key performance parameters of relevance to the X-ray CCDs, including instrument considerations and examples, together with performance over time. While design considerations such as noise and QE are described, longterm operational problems arising from radiation damage and contamination are also considered.

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