Educational research and AIED: Identifying ethical challenges

Fox, Alison (2023). Educational research and AIED: Identifying ethical challenges. In: Holmes, Wayne and Porayska-Pomsta, Kaśka eds. The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Education: Practices, Challenges, and Debates. New York, USA: Routledge, pp. 47–73.



This chapter focuses on the ethical issues associated with researching machine learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) by applying a framework that draws on four traditions of ethical thinking to guide ethical decision-making: consequential, ecological, relational, and deontological. Reference is made to the recently revised ethical guidance from the British Educational Research Association (BERA) and the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) and, in particular, the ‘AI and ML Internet Research Ethics Guidelines’, a companion to the main AoIR documentation. The chapter supports and illustrates one of the key principles of the AoIR guidance, that of ethical pluralism – context-specific approaches to rationales for ethical appraisal. It is organised by addressing questions about the why, what, and to whom, and the obligations in terms of issues to avoid and to show when planning and engaging with educational research relating to AIED interventions.

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