Diversity of Family Formation: LGBTQ+ Parents

Darwin, Zoe and Greenfield, Mari (2023). Diversity of Family Formation: LGBTQ+ Parents. In: Borg Xuereb, Rita and Jomeen, Julie eds. Perspectives on Midwifery and Parenthood. Springer, Cham, pp. 163–179.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-17285-4_13


LGBTQ+ parenting refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ+) people raising one or more children. This includes children raised by same-sex couples (same-sex parenting), children raised by single LGBTQ+ parents and children raised by an opposite-sex couple where at least one partner is LGBTQ+. Increasing numbers of LGBTQ+ people are choosing to parent through various means including current or former relationships, co-parenting, donor insemination and reciprocal IVF. Despite this, invisibility continues in research, policy and practice. This chapter discusses the value of research that explores the contemporary realities of the diversity of family formation, showcasing evidence on experiences of maternity services, birth experiences and perinatal mental health and considering the implications for midwives, birth workers and other health and social practitioners.

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