ExoClock Project. III. 450 New Exoplanet Ephemerides from Ground and Space Observations

Kokori, A.; Tsiaras, A.; Edwards, B.; Jones, A.; Pantelidou, G.; Tinetti, G.; Bewersdorff, L.; Iliadou, A.; Jongen, Y.; Lekkas, G.; Nastasi, A.; Poultourtzidis, E.; Sidiropoulos, C.; Walter, F.; Wünsche, A.; Abraham, R.; Agnihotri, V. K.; Albanesi, R.; Arce-Mansego, E.; Arnot, D.; Audejean, M.; Aumasson, C.; Bachschmidt, M.; Baj, G.; Barroy, P. R.; Belinski, A. A.; Bennett, D.; Benni, P.; Bernacki, K.; Betti, L.; Biagini, A.; Bosch, P.; Brandebourg, P.; Brát, L.; Bretton, M.; Brincat, S. M.; Brouillard, S.; Bruzas, A.; Bruzzone, A.; Buckland, R. A.; Caló, M.; Campos, F.; Carreño, A.; Carrion Rodrigo, J. A.; Casali, R.; Casalnuovo, G.; Cataneo, M.; Chang, C.-M.; Changeat, L.; Chowdhury, V.; Ciantini, R.; Cilluffo, M.; Coliac, J.-F.; Conzo, G.; Correa, M.; Coulon, G.; Crouzet, N.; Crow, M. V.; Curtis, I. A.; Daniel, D.; Dauchet, B.; Dawes, S.; Deldem, M.; Deligeorgopoulos, D.; Dransfield, G.; Dymock, R.; Eenmäe, T.; Esseiva, N.; Evans, P.; Falco, C.; Farfán, R. G.; Fernández-Lajús, E.; Ferratfiat, S.; Ferreira, S. L.; Ferretti, A.; Fiołka, J.; Fowler, M.; Futcher, S. R.; Gabellini, D.; Gainey, T.; Gaitan, J.; Gajdoš, P.; García-Sánchez, A.; Garlitz, J.; Gillier, C.; Gison, C.; Gonzales, J.; Gorshanov, D.; Grau Horta, F.; Grivas, G.; Guerra, P.; Guillot, T.; Haswell, C. A.; Haymes, T.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Hills, K.; Hose, K.; Humbert, T.; Hurter, F.; Hynek, T.; Irzyk, M.; Jacobsen, J.; Jannetta, A. L.; Johnson, K.; Jóźwik-Wabik, P.; Kaeouach, A. E.; Kang, W.; Kiiskinen, H.; Kim, T.; Kivila, Ü.; Koch, B.; Kolb, U.; Kučáková, H.; Lai, S.-P.; Laloum, D.; Lasota, S.; Lewis, L. A.; Liakos, G.-I.; Libotte, F.; Lomoz, F.; Lopresti, C.; Majewski, R.; Malcher, A.; Mallonn, M.; Mannucci, M.; Marchini, A.; Mari, J.-M.; Marino, A.; Marino, G.; Mario, J.-C.; Marquette, J.-B.; Martínez-Bravo, F. A.; Mašek, M.; Matassa, P.; Michel, P.; Michelet, J.; Miller, M.; Miny, E.; Molina, D.; Mollier, T.; Monteleone, B.; Montigiani, N.; Morales-Aimar, M.; Mortari, F.; Morvan, M.; Mugnai, L. V.; Murawski, G.; Naponiello, L.; Naudin, J.-L.; Naves, R.; Néel, D.; Neito, R.; Neveu, S.; Noschese, A.; Öğmen, Y.; Ohshima, O.; Orbanic, Z.; Pace, E. P.; Pantacchini, C.; Paschalis, N. I.; Pereira, C.; Peretto, I.; Perroud, V.; Phillips, M.; Pintr, P.; Pioppa, J.-B.; Plazas, J.; Poelarends, A. J.; Popowicz, A.; Purcell, J.; Quinn, N.; Raetz, M.; Rees, D.; Regembal, F.; Rocchetto, M.; Rocci, P.-F.; Rockenbauer, M.; Roth, R.; Rousselot, L.; Rubia, X.; Ruocco, N.; Russo, E.; Salisbury, M.; Salvaggio, F.; Santos, A.; Savage, J.; Scaggiante, F.; Sedita, D.; Shadick, S.; Silva, A. F.; Sioulas, N.; Školník, V.; Smith, M.; Smolka, M.; Solmaz, A.; Stanbury, N.; Stouraitis, D.; Tan, T.-G.; Theusner, M.; Thurston, G.; Tifner, F. P.; Tomacelli, A.; Tomatis, A.; Trnka, J.; Tylšar, M.; Valeau, P.; Vignes, J.-P.; Villa, A.; Sureda, A. Vives; Vora, K.; Vrašt’ák, M.; Walliang, D.; Wenzel, B.; Wright, D. E.; Zambelli, R.; Zhang, M. and Zíbar, M. (2023). ExoClock Project. III. 450 New Exoplanet Ephemerides from Ground and Space Observations. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 265(1), article no. 4.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/ac9da4


The ExoClock project has been created to increase the efficiency of the Ariel mission. It will achieve this by continuously monitoring and updating the ephemerides of Ariel candidates, in order to produce a consistent catalog of reliable and precise ephemerides. This work presents a homogenous catalog of updated ephemerides for 450 planets, generated by the integration of ∼18,000 data points from multiple sources. These sources include observations from ground-based telescopes (the ExoClock network and the Exoplanet Transit Database), midtime values from the literature, and light curves from space telescopes (Kepler, K2, and TESS). With all the above, we manage to collect observations for half of the postdiscovery years (median), with data that have a median uncertainty less than 1 minute. In comparison with the literature, the ephemerides generated by the project are more precise and less biased. More than 40% of the initial literature ephemerides had to be updated to reach the goals of the project, as they were either of low precision or drifting. Moreover, the integrated approach of the project enables both the monitoring of the majority of the Ariel candidates (95%), and also the identification of missing data. These results highlight the need for continuous monitoring to increase the observing coverage of the candidate planets. Finally, the extended observing coverage of planets allows us to detect trends (transit-timing variations) for a sample of 19 planets. All the products, data, and codes used in this work are open and accessible to the wider scientific community.

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