CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

Stefanov, Konstantin and Holland, Andrew (2022). CMOS Active Pixel Sensors. In: Bambi, Cosimo and Santangelo, Andrea eds. Handbook of X-ray and Gamma-ray Astrophysics. Handbook of X-ray and Gamma-ray Astrophysics. Singapore: Springer, pp. 1–26.



This chapter describes the main developments in Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensors (APS) for soft X-ray imaging, using silicon as a detector material. The chapter covers Hybrid active pixels sensors (HAPS), Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) and various 3D-integrated sensors with specific applications in X-ray imaging and space-based X-ray astronomy. Some new developments in monolithic APS (MAPS) which make them competitive to the more established technologies are covered as well. The sensor developments for several planned and proposed X-ray space telescopes are described.

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