CMOS Image Sensors

Stefanov, Konstantin (2022). CMOS Image Sensors. Bristol, UK: IOP Publishing.



This book explores the operating principles of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, their architecture, readout circuits, and characterisation techniques.

The book focusses on the pinned photodiode (4T) pixel and also describes the three transistor (3T) design and other pixel architectures. Device operation is explained throughout with the support of technology computer-aided design (TCAD) semiconductor simulations.

Characterisation techniques of CMOS image sensors are discussed in detail, including the use of the photon transfer curve (PTC) for determining the many device parameters. Solved examples are included with the purpose of helping readers gain an understanding of the practical use of the formulas. The main audience includes physicists and engineers in image sensor characterisation and development.

Key features

• Includes many semiconductor device and circuit simulations as a tool to illustrate the operating principles.

• Covers both the semiconductor physics and the most important electronic circuits comprising a CMOS image sensor.

• Presents solved examples and a list of the most important 'take-aways' within each chapter.

• Discusses some specialised topics, such as charge collection, sources of dark current, reflective barriers, backside illumination and potential gradients.

• Provides detailed analysis of the noise sources and the readout techniques in CMOS image sensors.

• Covers the on-chip readout circuits at transistor level and presents the essential off-chip electronics with practical examples.

Viewing alternatives

Download history


Public Attention

Altmetrics from Altmetric

Number of Citations

Citations from Dimensions

Item Actions