2D-doped silicon detectors for UV/optical/NIR and x-ray astronomy

Hoenk, Michael E.; Jewell, April D.; Kyne, Gillian; Hennessy, John J.; Jones, Todd J.; Cheng, Samuel R.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Morris, David; Lawrie, Katherine and Skottfelt, Jesper (2022). 2D-doped silicon detectors for UV/optical/NIR and x-ray astronomy. In: X-Ray, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy X (Holland, Andrew and Beletic, James eds.).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2631542


In this paper we review the physics and performance of back-illuminated CCDs. Models of back-illuminated CCDs are used to derive requirements for stable, strong surface passivation in space-relevant environments. Models and data are used to compare state-of-the-art surface passivation methods with 2D-doped surfaces. MBE growth of 2D-doped silicon on back-illuminated CCDs and CMOS image sensors enables near 100% charge collection efficiency with exceptional stability in space and other harsh environments. Lifetime tests performed on 2D-doped CMOS image sensors using pulsed DUV lasers have demonstrated the unique stability of 2D-doped detectors against high levels of radiation-induced surface damage. The insensitivity of 2D-doped detectors to Si-SiO2 traps has facilitated the development of a variety of coatings and filters with science-enabling capabilities for NASA instruments and missions in the far and near ultraviolet spectral range. We discuss the status and goals of a strategic partnership between JPL and Teledyne e2v for the certification of 2Ddoping processes, and report initial results from our collaboration.

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