Spatially resolved neutron texture measurements of copper bolts from the Deltebre I (1813) site

Malamud, F.; Northover, P.; Northover, S.; Nneji, S.; Kelleher, J.; Ciarlo, N. C. and Mauri, R. Geli (2022). Spatially resolved neutron texture measurements of copper bolts from the Deltebre I (1813) site. Materials Characterization, 192, article no. 112183.



Spatially resolved neutron texture analyses were performed on several copper bolts used to fasten different wooden components of the hull of the Deltebre I (1813) shipwreck. Since 2008 this site has been the subject of a thorough archaeological study by the Catalan Centre for Underwater Archaeology of the Archaeological Museum of Catalonia. It has been identified as one of the transport ships of a combined British, Sicilian and Spanish fleet that ran aground in the Ebro delta, off the coast of Catalonia, after an unsuccessful expedition to liberate the city of Tarragona from Napoleon's forces. In this paper, the texture and texture gradients of five different bolts recovered from this site were examined non-destructively, using the TOF neutron scanner ENGIN-X and analysing the data using the NyRTex methodology. The spatially resolved texture results indicate that at least three different methods were probably used to manufacture the bolts: drawing, casting, and forging and/or rolling. These results can both shed light on the processes of manufacture of fastenings of the early 19th century and contribute to identifying the ship.

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