CSR, Credibility, Employees Rights, and Legitimacy During A Crisis: A Critical Analysis of British Airways, WizAir, and EasyJet Cases

Kassem, Rasha; Salama, Aly and Ganepola, Chanaka N. (2023). CSR, Credibility, Employees Rights, and Legitimacy During A Crisis: A Critical Analysis of British Airways, WizAir, and EasyJet Cases. Employee Relations, 45(1) pp. 1–20.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-11-2021-0517


Using legitimacy and impression management theories, this study examines whether there is evidence of CSR decoupling by critically analysing the cases of three Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) 350 airline companies (British Airways, WizAir, and Easyjet). The study focuses on three CSR aspects: community, customer, and employee support.

Using the case study method, we critically analysed the content of the three companies' websites and verified Twitter accounts between March 2020 and August 2020. We also reviewed news media sources tied explicitly to COVID- 19 and the airline industry.

The study finds evidence of CSR decoupling due to inconsistencies between the three airline companies' communication about their commitment to customers' health and safety and their actions. It also uncovers that the three airline companies have violated employee rights by imposing unjustifiable and excessive redundancies and pay cuts, freezing planned pay rises, forcing unpaid leaves, and in some cases, suspending free meals during the crew shifts and exploiting the financial pressure and lack of jobs resulting from the pandemic by offering employees inferior contracts.

This paper responds to He & Harris's (2020) call for research to explore the impact of the global pandemic on CSR practices and Crane & Matten's (2020) call for research investigating how specific stakeholders get unvalued during the pandemic. Our study argues that the social responsibility of organisations, especially during crises, should not only focus on voluntary and charitable deeds but also on supporting employees, putting employees' wellbeing at the forefront of their operations, and maintaining credibility and sincerity in their communication and actions.

The findings in this paper provide insights and policy implications for managers, stakeholders, and regulators. The paper sheds light on violations of employee rights, indicating that employees in the airline sector are among the under-appreciated stakeholders during the pandemic. Such knowledge is essential for practitioners and policymakers who are charting paths forward to address the needs of vulnerable categories of employees. It also elucidates the impact of CSR decoupling on an organisation's legitimacy and the significance of maintaining credibility in CSR communications and actions, especially during a crisis.

Although exploring and analysing CSR practices in organisations has already attracted considerable interest in recent years, we have minimal knowledge about organisations' genuine commitment to CSR during the pandemic, and there is a dearth of relevant studies in the aviation industry during the COVID- 19 pandemic. This study addresses this gap by exploring the CSR practices of three airline companies and their genuine commitment to CSR during the pandemic.

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