Molecular Landscape of LncRNAs in Prostate Cancer: A focus on pathways and therapeutic targets for intervention

Mirzaei, Sepideh; Paskeh, Mahshid Deldar Abad; Okina, Elena; Gholami, Mohammad Hossein; Hushmandi, Kiavash; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Kalu, Azuma; Zarrabi, Ali; Nabavi, Noushin; Rabiee, Navid; Sharifi, Esmaeel; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Ashrafizadeh, Milad; Kumar, Alan Prem and Wang, Yuzhuo (2022). Molecular Landscape of LncRNAs in Prostate Cancer: A focus on pathways and therapeutic targets for intervention. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 41(1) p. 214.



Background: One of the most malignant tumors in men is prostate cancer that is still incurable due to its heterogenous and progressive natures. Genetic and epigenetic changes play significant roles in its development. The RNA molecules with more than 200 nucleotides in length are known as lncRNAs and these epigenetic factors do not encode protein. They regulate gene expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. LncRNAs play vital biological functions in cells and in pathological events, hence their expression undergoes dysregulation.

Aim of review: The role of epigenetic alterations in prostate cancer development are emphasized here. Therefore, lncRNAs were chosen for this purpose and their expression level and interaction with other signaling networks in prostate cancer progression were examined.

Key scientific concepts of review: The aberrant expression of lncRNAs in prostate cancer has been well-documented and progression rate of tumor cells are regulated via affecting STAT3, NF-κB, Wnt, PI3K/Akt and PTEN, among other molecular pathways. Furthermore, lncRNAs regulate radio-resistance and chemo-resistance features of prostate tumor cells. Overexpression of tumor-promoting lncRNAs such as HOXD-AS1 and CCAT1 can result in drug resistance. Besides, lncRNAs can induce immune evasion of prostate cancer via upregulating PD-1. Pharmacological compounds such as quercetin and curcumin have been applied for targeting lncRNAs. Furthermore, siRNA tool can reduce expression of lncRNAs thereby suppressing prostate cancer progression. Prognosis and diagnosis of prostate tumor at clinical course can be evaluated by lncRNAs. The expression level of exosomal lncRNAs such as lncRNA-p21 can be investigated in serum of prostate cancer patients as a reliable biomarker.

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