Strategies for formula constant optimisation for intraocular lens power calculation

Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra; Cayless, Alan; Wendelstein, Jascha and Hoffmann, Peter (2022). Strategies for formula constant optimisation for intraocular lens power calculation. PLOS ONE, 17(5), article no. e0267352.



To investigate modern nonlinear iterative strategies for formula constant optimisation and show the application and results from a large dataset using a set of disclosed theoretical-optical lens power calculation concepts.

Nonlinear iterative optimisation algorithms were implemented for optimising the root mean squared (SoSPE), the mean absolute (SoAPE), the mean (MPE), the standard deviation (SDPE), the median (MEDPE), as well as the 90% confidence interval (CLPE) of the prediction error (PE), defined as the difference between postoperative achieved and formula predicted spherical equivalent power of refraction. Optimisation was performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (SoSPE and SoAPE) or the interior point method (MPE, SDPE, MEDPE, CLPE) for the SRKT, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, Haigis, and Castrop formulae. The results were based on a dataset of measurements made on 888 eyes after implantation of an aspherical hydrophobic monofocal intraocular lens (Vivinex, Hoya).

For all formulae and all optimisation metrics, the iterative algorithms showed a fast and stable convergence after a couple of iterations. The results prove that with optimisation for SoSPE, SoAPE, MPE, SDPE, MEDPE, and CLPE the root mean squared PE, mean absolute PE, mean PE, standard deviation of PE, median PE, and confidence interval of PE could be minimised in all situations. The results in terms of cumulative distribution function are quite coherent with optimisation for SoSPE, SoAPE, MPE and MEDPE, whereas with optimisation for SDPE and CLPE the standard deviation and confidence interval of the PE distribution could only be minimised at the cost of a systematic offset in mean and median PE.

Nonlinear iterative techniques are capable of minimising any statistical metrics (e.g. root mean squared or mean absolute error) of any target parameter (e.g. PE). These optimisation strategies are an important step towards optimising for the target parameters which are used for evaluating the performance of lens power calculation formulae.

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