Moving Language Teaching and Learning from the Known to the Unknown

Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes (2021). Moving Language Teaching and Learning from the Known to the Unknown. In: Miller, Lindsay and Wu, Junjie Gavin eds. Language Learning with Technology: Perspectives from Asia. Singapore: Springer, pp. 3–12.



In 2020, at the time of writing this introductory chapter, the largely unanticipated COVID-19 pandemic created an unexpected context in which to consider developments in language learning with technology. Widely imposed restrictions on mobility and travel suddenly put an end to many of the benefits of mobile learning, when conceived as learning on the move rather than merely the use of mobile devices. This chapter considers some changes that are occurring as education adapts to new realities and as those involved in language teaching and learning stride forward — or shuffle hesitantly — into the unknown. It highlights the potential to accept and explore the unknown, through processes of inquiry and consideration of desired outcomes. To facilitate this process, the structure of the chapter is loosely based on a learning design framework developed as a tool for language teachers to help them reflect, innovate and prepare new learning activities to be undertaken with the use of mobile devices (Kukulska-Hulme et al., 2015). The original framework is effectively an invitation to teachers to explore how language learners might be guided and supported to undertake ‘inquiries’, defined as open-ended learning activities that take advantage of opportunities for technology-supported language learning or practice in, and especially beyond, the classroom. The framework assumes that teachers have enough autonomy to be able to do that. Although it is used in this chapter in a different way (not for the design of learning activities, but to consider broader aspects of change), there is a similar goal in terms of undertaking a structured exploration to discover something new.

Viewing alternatives

Download history


Public Attention

Altmetrics from Altmetric

Number of Citations

Citations from Dimensions

Item Actions