Ratio of torus and equivalent power to refractive cylinder and spherical equivalent in phakic lenses – a Monte‐Carlo simulation study

Langenbucher, Achim; Schrecker, Jens; Eppig, Timo; Schröder, Simon; Cayless, Alan; Schwemm, Michael; Nagy, Zoltán and Szentmáry, Nóra (2021). Ratio of torus and equivalent power to refractive cylinder and spherical equivalent in phakic lenses – a Monte‐Carlo simulation study. Acta Ophthalmologica, 100(1) pp. 58–67.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.14902


Background: Spherical and astigmatic powers for phakic intraocular lenses are frequently calculated using fixed ratios of phakic lens refractive power to refractive spherical equivalent, and of phakic lens astigmatism to refractive cylinder. In this study, a Monte-Carlo simulation based on biometric data was used to investigate how variations in biometrics affect these ratios, in order to improve the calculation of implantable lens parameters.
Methods: A data set of over sixteen thousand biometric measurements including axial length, phakic anterior chamber depth, and corneal equivalent and astigmatic power was used to construct a multidimensional probability density distribution. From this, we determined the axial position of the implanted lens and estimated the refractive spherical equivalent and refractive cylinder. A generic data model resampled the density distributions and interactions between variables, and the implantable lens power was determined using vergence propagation.
Results: 50 000 artificial data sets were used to calculate the phakic lens spherical equivalent and astigmatism required for emmetropization, and to determine the corresponding ratios for these two values. The spherical ratio ranged from 1.0640 to 1.3723 and the astigmatic ratio from 1.0501 to 1.4340. Both ratios are unaffected by the corneal spherical / astigmatic powers, or the refractive cylinder, but show strong correlation with the refractive spherical equivalent, mild correlation with the lens axial position, and moderate negative correlation with axial length. As a simplification, these ratios could be modelled using a bi-variable linear regression based on the first two of these factors.
Conclusion: Fixed spherical and astigmatic ratios should not be used when selecting high refractive power phakic IOLs as their variation can result in refractive errors of up to ±0.3 D for a 8 D lens. Both ratios can be estimated with clinically acceptable precision using a linear regression based on the refractive spherical equivalent and the axial position.

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