Long non-coding RNAs in the doxorubicin resistance of cancer cells

Ashrafizaveh, Saeed; Ashrafizadeh, Milad; Zarrabi, Ali; Husmandi, Kiavash; Zabolian, Amirhossein; Shahinozzaman, Md; Aref, Amir Reza; Hamblin, Michael R.; Nabavi, Noushin; Crea, Francesco; Wang, Yuzhuo and Ahn, Kwang Seok (2021). Long non-coding RNAs in the doxorubicin resistance of cancer cells. Cancer Letters, 508 pp. 104–114.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.03.018

Abstract

Chemotherapy is the main treatment used for cancer patients failing surgery. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent capable of suppressing proliferation in cancer cells and triggering apoptosis via inhibiting topoisomerase II activity and producing DNA breaks. This activity of DOX restrains mitosis and cell cycle progression. However, frequent application of DOX results in the emergence of resistance in the cancer cells. It seems that genetic and epigenetic factors can provide DOX resistance of cancer cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a subcategory of non-coding RNAs with role in the regulation of several cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. LncRNA dysregulation has been associated with chemoresistance, and this profile occurs upon DOX treatment of cancer. In the present review, we focus on the role of lncRNAs in mediating DOX resistance and discuss the molecular pathways and mechanisms. LncRNAs can drive DOX resistance via activating pathways such as NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, and FOXC2. Some lncRNAs can activate protective autophagy in response to the stress caused by DOX, which mediates resistance. In contrast, there are other lncRNAs involved in the sensitivity of cancer cells to DOX, such as GAS5, PTCSC3 and FENDRR. Some anti-tumor agents such as polydatin can regulate the expression of lncRNAs, enhancing DOX sensitivity. Overall, lncRNAs are potential players in DOX resistance, and their identification and targeting are of importance in chemosensitivity. Furthermore, these findings can be translated into clinical for treatment of cancer patients.

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