Musical Congruity in Advertising: Established and Emerging Themes

Oakes, Steve and Abolhasani, Morteza (2021). Musical Congruity in Advertising: Established and Emerging Themes. In: Deaville, James; Tan, Siu-Lan and Rodman, Ron eds. The Oxford Handbook of Music and Advertising. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 757–774.



Music is considered to be one of the most important executional cues in advertisements. It is ubiquitous in the context of television and radio advertising, with more than 94% of advertisements incorporating music (Allan, 2008). Music accounts for a significant commercial advantage in the context of advertising by producing favorable associations with the product or brand (Gorn, 1982), contributing to the message (Hecker, 1984; Hung, 2000), and attracting consumers' attention and enhancing message recall (Yalch, 1991).

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