Development of a novel and low-cost anthropomorphic pelvis phantom for 3D dosimetry in radiotherapy.

Babaloui, Somayyeh; Jafari, Shakardokht; Polak, Wojciech; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Hubbard, Michael WJ; Lohstroh, Annika; Shirazi, Alireza and Jaber, Ramin (2020). Development of a novel and low-cost anthropomorphic pelvis phantom for 3D dosimetry in radiotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy, 12(5) pp. 470–479.



Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct a low-cost, anthropomorphic, and 3D-printed pelvis phantom and evaluate the feasibility of its use to perform 3D dosimetry with commercially available bead thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs).

Material and methods: A novel anthropomorphic female phantom was developed with all relevant pelvic organs to position the bead TLDs. Organs were 3D-printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Phantom components were confirmed to have mass density and computed tomography (CT) numbers similar to relevant tissues. To find out clinically required spatial resolution of beads to cause no perturbation effect, TLDs were positioned with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mm spacing on the surface of syringe. After taking a CT scan and creating a 4-field conformal radiotherapy plan, 3 dose planes were extracted from the treatment planning system (TPS) at different depths. By using a 2D-gamma analysis, the TPS reports were compared with and without the presence of beads. Moreover, the bead TLDs were placed on the organs' surfaces of the pelvis phantom and exposed to high-dose-rate (HDR) Co source. TLDs' readouts were compared with the TPS calculated doses, and dose surface histograms (DSHs) of organs were plotted.

Results: 3D-printed phantom organs agreed well with body tissues regarding both their design and radiation properties. Furthermore, the 2D-gamma analysis on the syringe showed more than 99% points passed 3%- and 3-mm criteria at different depths. By calculating the integral dose of DSHs, the percentage differences were -1.5%, 2%, 5%, and 10% for uterus, rectum, bladder, and sigmoid, respectively. Also, combined standard uncertainty was estimated as 3.5% (k= 1).

Conclusions: A customized pelvis phantom was successfully built and assessed to confirm properties similar to body tissues. Additionally, no significant perturbation effect with different bead resolutions was presented by the external TPS, with 0.1 mm dose grid resolution.

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