Spatial Natural Language Generation for Location Description in Photo Captions

Hall, Mark; Jones, Christopher B. and Smart, Philip (2015). Spatial Natural Language Generation for Location Description in Photo Captions. In: Spatial Information Theory (Fabrikant, Sara Irina; Raubal, Martin; Bertolotto, Michaela; Davies, Claire; Freundschuh, Scott and Bell, Scott eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer International Publishing, pp. 196–223.



We present a spatial natural language generation system to create captions that describe the geographical context of geo-referenced photos. An analysis of existing photo captions was used to design templates representing typical caption language patterns, while the results of human subject experiments were used to create field-based spatial models of the applicability of some commonly used spatial prepositions. The language templates are instantiated with geo-data retrieved from the vicinity of the photo locations. A human subject evaluation was used to validate and to improve the spatial language generation procedure, examples of the results of which are presented in the paper.

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