Treatment-emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer: molecularly driven clinical guidelines

Clermont, Pier-Luc; Ci, Xinpei; Pandha, Hardev; Wang, Yuzhuo and Crea, Francesco (2019). Treatment-emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer: molecularly driven clinical guidelines. International Journal of Endocrine Oncology, 6(2), article no. IJE20.



An increasingly recognized mechanism of prostate cancer resistance is the transdifferentiation from adenocarcinoma to treatment-emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-NEPC), an extremely aggressive malignancy. The incidence of t-NEPC has been increasing in recent years, in part due to novel treatments that target the androgen receptor pathway. While clinicians historically had very few options for t-NEPC detection and treatment, recent research has uncovered key diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets that can be translated into improved patient care. In this article, we will outline the clinical features of t-NEPC and its molecular pathogenesis. Importantly, we will also discuss recently uncovered molecularly based strategies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of t-NEPC. Finally, we will propose a unified algorithm that integrates clinical and molecular information for the clinical management of t-NEPC.

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