Environmental values amongst tourists to small urban places in Scotland.

Crick-Furman, Deborah Suzanne Estelle (1999). Environmental values amongst tourists to small urban places in Scotland. PhD thesis The Open University.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21954/ou.ro.00010231


This study discusses the effectiveness of methods for measuring personal values in tourism research and presents an exploration of different modelling techniques as more effective approaches. Drawing on research examining the measurement of environmental values and the contextual, multiple and conflicting nature of values, the use of a contextual and situational value measurement technique for assessing tourism values is suggested as an alternative to the more common generalist “personal values in everyday life” approach. A two dimensional model of tourism values is proposed which serves to integrate the literature and help to better understand tourism values. The two bi-polar dimensions are, firstly, emotion-dominant and cognition-dominant; and secondly, inner directed and outer directed.

In 1995 and 1996 surveys were conducted on visitors to two small urban locations in Scotland. The objectives of the two studies were as follows: First, to uncover the range of personal values that are invoked when tourists are choosing a destination to visit, and which therefore can be considered as current and relevant to the tourism life domain (context). The contextual approach was used to measure situational variables (activities, destination attributes, place attachment and environmental concern) in both towns. Tourists to these two towns were then segmented on the basis of their expressed values and behaviours. Second, hierarchical loglinear analysis was used to examine the effect of multiple, conflicting values on holiday behaviour. The study concludes by emphasising the importance of measuring values taking into account the general or specific situation that tourists find themselves in, guided by values covering all aspects of the tourist life domain. Finally, the utility and effectiveness of the two analytical approaches are assessed and the managerial implications that emerge from the study and analysis are discussed.

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