An analysis of ICT policy development and practice in teacher education in Kenya between 1997-2007

Ogange, Beatrice Obura (2011). An analysis of ICT policy development and practice in teacher education in Kenya between 1997-2007. PhD thesis The Open University.



This study, entitled 'An analysis of ICT policy development and practice in teacher education in Kenya between 1997 and 2007', is a qualitative study that uses a historical interpretive approach involving documentary analysis, interviews and case 'studies, to document the evolution of ICT policies relevant to teacher education in post independence Kenya, and explore the practices among teachers and teacher educators with ICT between 1997 and 2007. It examines the policy- practice relationship in the context of teacher education. The thesis draws from the work of Elmore and also Fullan to understand the change process with educational ICT policies. Not much research has been done in this area in Kenya and this study is therefore a useful contribution to the body of knowledge on leT policy development and practice in teacher education in developing country contexts. The ICT policy process for teacher education in Kenya takes place in a 4-Tier framework that involves international organisations at Tier 1, the Ministry of Education, other ministries and associated bodies at Tier 2, private or public sector organisations at Tier 3, and pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes at Tier 4. There is lack of co-ordination within and between these Tiers, which results in varied practices that portray differential understandings and interpretations of policy in regard to the place of ICT in teacher education.Despite the exposure to ICT training programmes, availability of computers in various institutions and in some instances, a national ICT curriculum, teacher educators' and teachers' practices in subject teaching do not reflect the policy provisions on ICT pedagogic practice. The national ICT policy, therefore, is hyperationalised and not necessarily policy in action as seen in the Case programmes. The policy discourse disjunction and stratification in the 4-Tier ICT policy development and implementation framework is responsible for the slow pace of change in training and teaching practices in Kenya. This thesis proposes that teacher needs and competencies with ICT should be identified in a backward mapping approach. This will ensure transformative practices in teaching and teacher education, reduce the occurrence of hyperationalisation and allow for consensus building regarding the place of ICT in teacher education programmes and teaching in Kenya.

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