Direct Combination

Holland, Simon and Oppenheim, Daniel (1999). Direct Combination. In: CHI '99: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Williams, Marion; Altom, Mark; Erlich, Kate and Newman, William eds.), Proceedings of ACM CHI, ACM Press/Addison Wesley, New York, pp. 262–269.



This paper reports on Direct Combination, a new user interaction technique. Direct Combination may be viewed variously as: a systematic extension to Direct Manipulation; a concise navigational framework to help users find the operations they need; and as a framework to make a greater range and variety of operations available to the user, without overburdening user or interface designer. While Direct Combination may be seen as an extension of Direct Manipulation, it may also be applied to a wide range of user interaction styles, including even command line interfaces. Examples from various hypothetical systems and from an implemented system are presented. This paper argues that Direct Combination is applicable not just to problem seeking or design oriented domains (where the technique originated) but is generally applicable. A variety of new interaction styles for Direct Combination are presented. The generalisation of Direct Combination to the n-dimensional case is presented.

Viewing alternatives


Public Attention

Altmetrics from Altmetric

Number of Citations

Citations from Dimensions
No digital document available to download for this item

Item Actions