Negotiation for Meaning Routines in Audio SCMC Interactions: An Expanded Framework

Li, Chenxi (Cecilia) and Lewis, Tim (2018). Negotiation for Meaning Routines in Audio SCMC Interactions: An Expanded Framework. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 8(3) pp. 50–72.



Negotiation for meaning, in response to instances of non-understanding, plays an important role in SLA. Meaning negotiation routines in face-to-face classroom interactions have been identified by Varonis and Gass. Smith expands the model to adapt it to text chat CMC environments. In the past decade, synchronous audio CMC has become commonly used for online language teaching, but its affordances are different from text chat CMC. Therefore, it is necessary to examine what meaning negotiation routines are in language learners’ oral interactions in this new online learning environment. In this study, participants were invited to complete two information gap tasks in which target lexical items were embedded to elicit learners’ negotiation for meaning and then they participated in a stimulated recall interview. Based on the analysis of students’ oral interactions in synchronous audio CMC, the authors propose two new possible stages in negotiation for meaning routines and demonstrate how different modes of communication can affect language learning online.

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