Natural language processing in CLIME, a multilingual legal advisory system

Evans, Roger; Piwek, Paul; Cahill, Lynne and Tipper, Neil (2008). Natural language processing in CLIME, a multilingual legal advisory system. Natural Language Engineering, 14(1) pp. 101–132.



This paper describes CLIME, a web-based legal advisory system with a multilingual natural language interface. clime is a 'proof-of-concept' system which answers queries relating to ship-building and ship-operating regulations. Its core knowledge source is a set of such regulations encoded as a conceptual domain model and a set of formalised legal inference rules. The system supports retrieval of regulations via the conceptual model, and assessment of the legality of a situation or activity on a ship according to the legal inference rules. The focus of this paper is on the natural language aspects of the system, which help the user to construct semantically complex queries using wysiwym technology, allow the system to produce extended and cohesive responses and explanations, and support the whole interaction through a hybrid synchronous/asynchronous dialogue structure. Multilinguality (English and French) is viewed simply as interface localisation: the core representations are languageneutral, and the system can present extended or local interactions in either language at any time. The development of clime featured a high degree of client involvement, and the specification, implementation and evaluation of natural language components in this context are also discussed.

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