Students’ views on trust-based e-assessment system for online and blended environments

Okada, Alexandra; Whitelock, Denise and Holmes, Wayne (2017). Students’ views on trust-based e-assessment system for online and blended environments. In: The Online, Open and Flexible Higher Education Conference, 25-27 Oct 2017, Open University, Milton Keynes.


Electronic assessment, known as e-assessment, has become widely adopted in Higher Education in the 21st century. However, there are various issues to be addressed particularly related to trust (Ma et al, 2011), authentication (Hoshiar et al,2014; Bhagat & Katankar, 2014) and accessibility (Ball,2011). Although some cases studies show that technology enhances the validity and security of assessments (Rodchua, Yiadom et Woolsey, 2011; Okada, Mendonca & Scott, 2015) there is still an increased concern over plagiarism and malpractice predominantly on online exams (Underwood & Szabo, 2003 ). The wider use of e-assessment, requires a more refined understanding on how innovative technologies can be effectively integrated and tested into a flexible and adaptive learning environment to ensure credibility and validity (Apampa, Wills et Argles,2010; Baneres, Baró, Guerrero-Roldán & Rodríguez,2016 ).

This study examines learners’ views on trust-based e-assessment system for online and blended environments. It focuses on TeSLA project whose aim is to provide to Educational Institutions an adaptive trust e-assessment interface for assuring e-assessment processes in online and blended environments. TeSLA system is designed to support any educational institution to obtain evidence for e-assessing their students during the learning process in an accredited and certified way. Its key innovation focuses on the integration and application of various technologies in one system: biometrics (keystroke dynamic, voice and face recognition); security mechanisms (digital signature and timestamp); and document analysis (anti-plagiarism tools and forensic analysis).

This exploratory qualitative study focuses on the qualitative analysis of focus groups with participants that used TeSLA system from Higher Education Universities. In the context of Responsible Research and Innovation, end users must be involved in the processes of research and innovation at an early stage. Our findings revealed students’ views on the advantages and disadvantages of e-assessment including authentication systems.

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Ball, S. (2011). Accessibility in e-assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education vol: 34 (3) pp: 293-303.
Baneres D, Baró X, Guerrero-Roldán A & Rodríguez M (2016). Adaptive e-assessment system: A general approach International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning.
Hoshiar M, Dunlap J, Li J, Friedel J (2014). Examining the Effectiveness of Student Authentication and Authenticity in Online Learning at Community Colleges. Journal of Research and Practice
Ma J, Abie H, Skramstad T, Nygård M, (2011) Assessment of the Trustworthiness of Digital Records. International Federation for Information Processing.
Okada, A Mendonca M & Scott,P. (2015) Effective web videoconferencing for proctoring online oral exams: a case study at scale in Brazil. Open Praxis - International Journal of OECD vol: 7 (3) pp: 227-242.
Rodchua,S. Yiadom G. et Woolsey R. (2011) Student Verification System for Online Assessments: Bolstering Quality and Integrity of Distance Learning. Journal of Industrial Technology vol: 27 (3)
Underwood J & Szabo, A (2003) Academic offenses and e-learning: Individual propensities in cheating British Journal of Educational Technology 2003.

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