Evolution and impact of defects in a p-channel CCD after cryogenic proton-irradiation

Wood, Daniel; Hall, David J.; Gow, Jason; Skottfelt, Jesper; Murray, Neil J.; Stefanov, Konstantin and Holland, Andrew D. (2017). Evolution and impact of defects in a p-channel CCD after cryogenic proton-irradiation. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 64(11) pp. 2814–2821.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2017.2756019


P-channel CCDs have been shown to display improved tolerance to radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) when compared to n-channel CCDs. However, the defect distribution formed during irradiation is expected to be temperature dependent due to the differences in lattice energy caused by a temperature change. This has been tested through defect analysis of two p-channel e2v CCD204 devices, one irradiated at room temperature and one at a cryogenic temperature (153K). Analysis is performed using the method of single trap pumping. The dominant charge trapping defects at these conditions have been identified as the donor level of the silicon divacancy and the carbon interstitial defect. The defect parameters are analysed both immediately post irradiation and following several subsequent room-temperature anneal phases up until a cumulative anneal time of approximately 10 months. We have also simulated charge transfer in an irradiated CCD pixel using the defect distribution from both the room-temperature and cryogenic case, to study how the changes affect imaging performance. The results demonstrate the importance of cryogenic irradiation and annealing studies, with large variations seen in the defect distribution when compared to a device irradiated at room-temperature, which is the current standard procedure for radiation-tolerance testing.

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