Gender differences in the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire: A meta-analysis

Richardson, John T. E. (1995). Gender differences in the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire: A meta-analysis. Journal of Mental Imagery, 19(3-4) pp. 177–187.

Abstract

Comments on S. J. McKelvie's review of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), taking issue with McKelvie's conclusion that there are no gender differences in VVIQ scores. Methodological problems with McKelvie's argument are reviewed, and a meta-analysis of gender differences in ratings on the VVIQ using both confidence intervals at 95% and 1-tailed tests of statistical significance is presented. Results of 16 comparisons of men and women in terms of VVIQ scores show a slight but reliable tendency for women to report more vivid images than men. However, randomizing the order of the items abolishes the effects of gender, leading to the suggestion that the gender differences themselves are determined by psychosocial factors rather than by biological ones

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