Reflective Writing Analytics - Empirically Determined Keywords of Written Reflection

Ullmann, Thomas Daniel (2017). Reflective Writing Analytics - Empirically Determined Keywords of Written Reflection. In: LAK '17 Proceedings of the Seventh International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM, New York, USA, pp. 163–167.



Despite their importance for educational practice, reflective writings are still manually analysed and assessed, posing a constraint on the use of this educational technique. Recently, research started to investigate automated approaches for analysing reflective writing. Foundational to many automated approaches is the knowledge of words that are important for the genre. This research presents keywords that are specific to several categories of a reflective writing model. These keywords have been derived from eight datasets, which contain several thousand instances using the log-likelihood method. Both performance measures, the accuracy and the Cohen's κ, for these keywords were estimated with ten-fold cross validation. The results reached an accuracy of 0.78 on average for all eight categories and a fair to good inter-rater reliability for most categories even though it did not make use of any sophisticated rule-based mechanisms or machine learning approaches. This research contributes to the development of automated reflective writing analytics that are based on data-driven empirical foundations.

Viewing alternatives

Download history


Public Attention

Altmetrics from Altmetric

Number of Citations

Citations from Dimensions

Item Actions