Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom

Black, Paul; Harrison, Christine; Lee, Clare; Marshal, Bethan and Wiliam, Dylan (2004). Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1) pp. 8–21.

URL: http://pdkintl.org/publications/kappan/

Abstract

'Inside the Black Box' (Phi Delta Kappan, October 1998) summarized research evidence that showed that improving the quality of teachers' day-to-day classroom assessment could have substantial impact on students' learning. Here we report on one study that has attempted to put this into practice with 24 secondary school mathematics and science teachers in England. Through the use of improved questioning techniques, feedback focusing on how to improve rather than grading, and involving students in peer-assessment and self-assessment, teachers found that the motivation and attitudes of their students improved, and the students achieved higher scores on externally set tests and examinations than other students at the same schools.

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