Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale

Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare (2016). Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 49(3) pp. 217–242.



The Mathematical Resilience Scale measures students’ attitudes toward studying mathematics, using three correlated factors: Value, Struggle, and Growth. The Mathematical Resilience Scale was developed and validated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across three samples. Results provide a new approach to gauge the likelihood of student participation and persistence in mathematics.

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