Fluorescence microscopy

Sanderson, Michael J.; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian and Bootman, Martin D. (2014). Fluorescence microscopy. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 2014(10) pp. 1042–1065.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/pdb.top071795


Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation.

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