Ongoing exclusion within universal education: why education for all is not inclusive

Rix, Jonathan and Parry, John (2014). Ongoing exclusion within universal education: why education for all is not inclusive. In: Kiuppis, Florian and Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa eds. Inclusive Education Twenty Years After Salamanca. Disability Studies in Education (19). New York: Peter Lang.


In this chapter we acknowledge that the marketisation of education has impacted on both the Education for all and Inclusive education for all agendas but we also recognize that the specific cultural context within different nations and localities will also shape how universal education is interpreted and developed (Miles and Singal 2010). We will therefore look at three countries in order to consider not only the wider constraints imposed by neo-liberal educational ideology but also the particular legacy of previous policies, practices and provision within each state. In doing so we hope to explore recurrent trends, contradictions and tensions in their development of inclusion within an Education for all agenda and discuss how widening participation in established education systems often simply reconstitutes the exclusion of those who are perpetually marginalised. Our discussions will underline why, despite the declaration at Jomtien, meeting at Salamanca was a necessity to provide a blueprint to reconstitute traditional education systems and how following that blueprint encounters frequent obstructions and diversions.

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