Simplified EOFs - three alternatives to rotation

Jolliffe, I.T.; Uddin, M. and Vines, S.K. (2002). Simplified EOFs - three alternatives to rotation. Climate Research, 20(3) pp. 271–279.




ABSTRACT: Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used in atmospheric science, and the
resulting empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) are often rotated to aid interpretation. In this paper 3
methods are described which provide alternatives to the standard 2-stage procedure of PCA followed
by rotation. The techniques are illustrated on a small example involving sea-surface temperatures in
the Mediterranean. Each method is shown to give different simplified interpretations for the major
sources of variation in the data set. All 3 techniques have advantages over standard rotation.

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