Designing R&D systems for mutual benefit

Russell, David B. and Ison, Raymond L. (2000). Designing R&D systems for mutual benefit. In: Ison, Ray and Russell, David eds. Agricultural Extension and Rural Development: Breaking out of Knowledge Transfer Traditions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 208–218.



The aim of this final chapter is to provide the reader/practitioner with the requisite fundamentals to fashion a researching/learning/action system designed to meet the needs of different and often conflicting stakeholders. It is justifiably an action system because it has its foundations embedded in the world of experience. It is a learning system because it has the built-in capacity for reflection on experience and the wherewithall to recognise change or learning when it has occurred. It is a researching sytem because it offers contestable knowledge, knowledge which is open to robust and critical appraisal.

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