'Classical' OR and 'soft' OR - an asymmetric complementarity

Checkland, Peter and Holwell, Sue (2004). 'Classical' OR and 'soft' OR - an asymmetric complementarity. In: Pidd, Michael ed. Systems modeling: theory and practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, pp. 45–60.

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Chapter 3: 'Classic' OR and 'soft' OR - an asymmetric complementarity
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Classic OR methodology.
3.3 Soft systems methodology.
3.4 ‘Hard’ and ‘soft’ perspectives.
3.5 The relation between ‘ha rd’ and ‘soft’ perspectives: an asymmetric complementarity.
3.6 Conclusion.
About the Book: There has always been an uneasy relationship between the 'hard' and 'soft' schools of management science. Featuring original insights from leading lights in the field, this accessibly written book begins by examining theoretical aspects of the hard/soft debate. It then goes on to consider how the two schools can be brought together in a new approach, integrating elements of both disciplines, and explores practical aspects of this with real-world examples. Highlights include Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann on soft OR models, Peter Checkland and Sue Holwell on classic and soft OR, and John Morecroft on learning in System Dynamics Practice. A concluding chapter brings the thinking of the contributors together and points the way forward.

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