Measurement of the residual stress tensor in a compact tension weld specimen

Traore, Y.; Paddea, S.; Bouchard, P. J. and Gharghouri, M. A. (2013). Measurement of the residual stress tensor in a compact tension weld specimen. Experimental Mechanics, 53(4) pp. 605–618.



Neutron diffraction measurements have been performed to determine the full residual stress tensor along the expected crack path in an austenitic stainless steel (Esshete 1250) compact tension weld specimen. A destructive slitting method was then implemented on the same specimen to measure the stress intensity factor profile associated with the residual stress field as a function of crack length. Finally deformations of the cut surfaces were measured to determine a contour map of the residual stresses in the specimen prior to the cut. The distributions of transverse residual stress measured by the three techniques are in close agreement. A peak tensile stress in excess of 600 MPa was found to be associated with an electron beam weld used to attach an extension piece to the test sample, which had been extracted from a pipe manual metal arc butt weld. The neutron diffraction measurements show that exceptionally high residual stress triaxiality is present at crack depths likely to be used for creep crack growth testing and where a peak stress intensity factor of 35 MPa√m was measured (crack depth of 21 mm). The neutron diffraction measurements identified maximum values of shear stress in the order of 50 MPa and showed that the principal stress directions were aligned to within ~20° of the specimen orthogonal axes. Furthermore it was confirmed that measurement of strains by neutron diffraction in just the three specimen orthogonal directions would have been sufficient to provide a reasonably accurate characterisation of the stress state in welded CT specimens.

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