Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of indium in germanium

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Chroneos, A.; Posselt, M. and Schmidt, B. (2009). Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of indium in germanium. Journal of Applied Physics, 106(6), article no. 063534.




Diffusion experiments with indium (In) in germanium (Ge) were performed in the temperature range between 550 and 900°C. Intrinsic and extrinsic doping levels were achieved by utilizing various implantation doses. Indium concentration profiles were recorded by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling. The observed concentration independent diffusion profiles are accurately described based on the vacancy mechanism with a singly negatively charged mobile In-vacancy complex. In accord with the experiment, the diffusion model predicts an effective In diffusion coefficient under extrinsic conditions that is a factor of 2 higher than under intrinsic conditions. The temperature dependence of intrinsic In diffusion yields an activation enthalpy of 3.51 eV and confirms earlier results of Dorner et al. [Z. Metallk. 73, 325 (1982)]. The value clearly exceeds the activation enthalpy of Ge self- diffusion and indicates that the attractive interaction between In and a vacancy does not extend to third nearest neighbor sites which confirms recent theoretical calculations. At low temperatures and high doping levels, the In profiles show an extended tail that could reflect an enhanced diffusion at the beginning of the annealing.

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