Empirical advances in expertise research

Green, A. J. K. and Gilhooly, K. J. (1992). Empirical advances in expertise research. In: Keane, M. T. and Gilhooly, K. J. eds. Advances in the Psychology of Thinking, Volume 1. Hemel Hempstead, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 45–70.


Studies examining the performance of experts and novices on a variety of tasks in different domains have proliferated in recent years. This chapter seeks to provide a review of the research and to summarize the advances that have been made. Our discussion will be largely organized around the following five ‘maxims’, which summarize the general thrust of many detailed results in the area (Gilooly, 1990):

1. Experts remember better.
2. Experts work forwards.
3. Experts have better problem representations.
4. Experts are superior in knowledge, not basic capacities.
5. Experts become expert through extensive practive.

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