Physical properties of the Sh2-104 H II region as seen by Herschel

Rodón, J. A.; Zavagno, A.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Anderson, L. D.; Polehampton, E.; Abergel, A.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Arab, H.; Beichman, C.; Bernard, J.-P.; Blagrave, K.; Boulanger, F.; Cohen, M.; Compiegne, M.; Cox, P.; Dartois, E.; Davis, G.; Emery, R.; Fulton, T.; Gry, C.; Habart, E.; Halpern, M.; Huang, M.; Joblin, C.; Jones, S. C.; Kirk, J.; Lagache, G.; Lin, T.; Madden, S.; Makiwa, G.; Martin, P.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, S.; Moseley, H.; Naylor, D.; Okumura, K.; Orieux, F.; Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Rodet, T.; Russeil, D.; Saraceno, P.; Sidher, S.; Spencer, L.; Swinyard, B.; Ward-Thompson, D. and White, G. (2010). Physical properties of the Sh2-104 H II region as seen by Herschel. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 518, article no. L80.



Context. Sh2-104 is a Galactic H II region with a bubble morphology, detected at optical and radio wavelengths. It is considered the first observational confirmation of the collect-and-collapse model of triggered star-formation.

Aims. We aim to analyze the dust and gas properties of the Sh2-104 region to better constrain its effect on local future generations of stars. In addition, we investigate the relationship between the dust emissivity index β and the dust temperature, Tdust.

Methods. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm we determine Tdust and β throughout Sh2-104, fitting the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) obtained from aperture photometry. With the SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) we obtained spectra at different positions in the Sh2-104 region. We detect J-ladders of 12CO and 13CO, with which we derive the gas temperature and column density. We also detect proxies of ionizing flux as the [NII]3P1-3P0 and [CI]33P2-3P1 transitions.

Results. We find an average value of β ~ 1.5 throughout Sh2-104, as well as a Tdust difference between the photodissociation region (PDR, ~25K) and the interior (~40K) of the bubble. We recover the anti-correlation between β and dust temperature reported numerous times in the literature. The relative isotopologue abundances of CO appear to be enhanced above the standard ISM values, but the obtained value is very preliminary and is still affected by large uncertainties.

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