Systems and levels: Dual-system theories and the personal-subpersonal distinction

Frankish, Keith (2009). Systems and levels: Dual-system theories and the personal-subpersonal distinction. In: Evans, Jonathan and Frankish, Keith eds. In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 89–107.

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Abstract

About the book: This book explores the idea that we have two minds - automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest in so-called dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality. According to such theories, there are two distinct systems underlying human reasoning - an evolutionarily old system that is associative, automatic, unconscious, parallel, and fast, and a more recent, distinctively human system that is rule-based, controlled, conscious, serial, and slow. Within the former, processes the former, processes are held to be innate and to use heuristics that evolved to solve specific adaptive problems. In the latter, processes are taken to be learned, flexible, and responsive to rational norms.

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