Charting unknown territory: Models of participation in mobile language learning

Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes (2010). Charting unknown territory: Models of participation in mobile language learning. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 4(2) pp. 116–129.



Current language learning provision seems ill-suited to meet the needs of 21st century learners. There is a growing expectation that mobile language learning will offer greater flexibility and that it will be better aligned with lifelong learning and the real needs of diverse and increasingly mobile populations travelling for work and leisure. This paper addresses the issue of how learners will participate in mobile language learning. To help conceptualise the issue, learning activities can be placed on a continuum that has teacher-driven language provision at one end, and entirely learner-driven provision at the other end. The middle ground between these two extremes can be described as unknown territory, but it is also the land of opportunity, where we are beginning to put down some markers. An emphasis on learner participation, bolstered by the possibilities created by mobile and ubiquitous learning, is set to transform language learning within the next decade, and possibly sooner.

Viewing alternatives

Download history


Public Attention

Altmetrics from Altmetric

Number of Citations

Citations from Dimensions

Item Actions