Varieties of social research

Hammersley, Martyn (2000). Varieties of social research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 3(3) pp. 221–229.



The distinction between basic and applied social research continues to be influential. Problems with this distinction are identified, and an alternative typology is presented. This distinguishes, first of all, between scientific and practical research, in terms of their audience and mode of validation. Further distinctions are then made within each of these categories, between theoretical and substantive scientific research, and between contract-based versus autonomous, and dedicated versus democratic, practical research.

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