The Open UniversitySkip to content

Open Research Online
Items Authored or Edited by Frederick Toates

Up a level
Export as [feed] Atom [feed] RSS 1.0 [feed] RSS 2.0 [Create Shortened URL] SURL
Group by: Published Date | Item Type | Authors/Editors/Creators | No Grouping
Jump to: 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2015 | 2014 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1993 | 1991 | 1990 | 1988 | 1987 | 1986 | 1984 | 1983 | 1982 | 1981 | 1980 | 1979 | 1978 | 1977 | 1976 | 1975 | 1974 | 1973 | 1972 | 1971 | 1970 | 1969 | 1968
Number of items: 116.


Toates, Frederick (2019). Understanding war and peace requires integration across discipline boundaries. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 25(4) pp. 355–356.


Toates, F. (2018). The enigmatic urge: how sexual desire works. In: Workman, L.; Reader, W and Barkow, J. H. eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives. Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Toates, F. (2018). Are evolutionary psychology and the neuroscience of motivation compatible? In: Workman, L.; Reader, W. and Barkov, J. H. eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Toates, Frederick (2018). Lust. In: Scarantino, Andrea ed. Routledge Handbook of Emotion Theory. London: Routledge.


Toates, Frederick (2017). The neuroscience of sexual addiction. In: Birchard, Thaddeus and Benfield, Joanna eds. Routledge International Handbook of Sexual Addiction. Routledge International Handbooks. Routledge, pp. 121–132.

Toates, Frederick; Smid, Wineke and van den Berg, Jan Willem (2017). A framework for understanding sexual violence: Incentive-motivation and hierarchical control. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 34 pp. 238–253.

Toates, Frederick (2017). A Hierarchical Model Might Cast Some Light on the Anomaly. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(5) pp. 1203–1205. file


Toates, Frederick (2015). A grand synthesis: aided by considering Systems 1 and 2 and incentive motivation. In: Gruber, Craig W.; Clark, Matthew G.; Klempe, Sven Hroar and Valsiner, Jaan eds. Constraints of Agency: Explorations of Theory in Everyday Life. Annals of Theoretical Psychology (12). Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 95–111. restricted access item, not available for direct download


Toates, Frederick (2014). How Sexual Desire Works: The Enigmatic Urge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Toates, F. (2012). Language and the brain. In: Brace, N. and Byford, J. eds. Investigating Psychology: Key Concepts, Key Studies, Key Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 281–319.

Toates, F. (2012). Changing behaviour. In: Brace, N. and Byford, J. eds. Investigating Psychology: Key Concepts, Key Studies, Key Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 149–188.

Toates, F. (2012). Skinner, Burrhus F. In: Seel, N. ed. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. New York: Springer US, pp. 3090–3092.


Toates, F. (2011). Biological Psychology (3rd edition). Harlow: Pearson Education.


Toates, F. (2010). Understanding drug treatments: A biopsychosocial approach. In: Barker, M.; Vossler, A. and Langdridge, D. eds. Understanding Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., pp. 45–75.


Toates, F. (2009). Burrhus F. Skinner. Mind Shapers. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Toates, Frederick (2009). An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 46(2-3) pp. 168–193.


Toates, F. ed. (2007). Pain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Toates, F. (2007). Alcohol - The links to brain, behaviour and mind. In: Smart, L. ed. Alcohol and Human Health. Introducing Health Science. Oxford: Open University Press, pp. 63–81.

Toates, F. (2007). Biological Psychology (2nd edition). Harlow: Pearson.


Toates, Frederick (2006). A Model of the hierarchy of behaviour, cognition, and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 15(1) pp. 75–118.


Toates, Frederick (2005). Evolutionary psychology: towards a more integrative model. Biology and Philosophy, 20(2) pp. 305–328.


Toates, Frederick (2004). Cognition, motivation, emotion and action: a dynamic and vulnerable interdependence. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 86(3-4) pp. 173–204.

Toates, Frederick (2004). 'In two minds': consideration of evolutionary precursors permits a more integrative theory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(2) p. 57.

Toates, Frederick (2004). Skinner's double life as both perpetrator and innocent victim: a reply to Baars. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11(9) pp. 57–63.


Toates, Frederick and Coschug-Toates, Olga (2002). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). London, UK: Class Publishing.

Toates, Frederick (2002). Physiology, motivation and the organization of behaviour. In: Jensen, P. ed. The Ethology of domestic animals: an introductory text. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 31–50.

Toates, F. (2002). Setting Norman's dual model into a broader context – a commentary on the paper by Norman. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 25(1) pp. 119–120.

Toates, F. (2002). Conscious minds and brains. Psychology Review, 17 pp. 10–13.

Toates, F. (2002). Application of a multilevel model of behavioural control to understanding emotion. Behavioural Processes, 60(2) pp. 99–114.


Toates, Frederick (2001). Patients' perspectives on OCD. In: Fineberg, Naomi; Marazziti, Donatella and Stein, Dan eds. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a practical guide. London: Martin Dunitz, pp. 177–182.

Toates, Fred (2001). Biological Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Prentice Hall.


Toates, Frederick (2000). Multiple factors controlling behaviour: Implications for stress and welfare. In: Mench, J. A. and Moberg, G. P. eds. The Biology of Animal Stress: Basic Principles and Implications for Animal Welfare. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, pp. 199–226.


Toates, F. (1998). Sensory systems. In: Eysenck, M. ed. Psychology: An Integrated Approach. Addison-Wesley Longman, pp. 100–137.

Toates, F. (1998). The biological bases of behaviour. In: Eysenck, M. ed. Psychology: An Integrated Approach. Addison-Wesley Longman, pp. 23–67.

Toates, F. ed. (1998). The Control of Behaviour. Berlin: Springer.


Toates, F. (1997). Special review - Mind, meaning and mental disorder - The nature of causal explanation in psychology and psychiatry. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(12) pp. 1161–1165.

Toates, F. (1997). On getting to grips with stimuli and the causation of behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 54(1) pp. 63–66.

Toates, F. and Jensen, P. (1997). Stress as a state of motivational systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 53(1-2) pp. 145–156.

Toates, F. (1997). Special Review - Theoretical approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(2) pp. 175–178.


Toates, F. (1996). The hippocampus seen in the context of declarative and procedural control - a commentary on the paper by Eichenbaum et al. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 19(4) pp. 771–772.

Toates, F. (1996). Living with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psyche, 1 pp. 4–6.

Toates, F. (1996). The embodied self: a biological perspective. In: Stevens, R. ed. Understanding the Self. London: SAGE, pp. 35–88.


Toates, F. (1995). Cognition and evolution - An organization of action perspective. Behavioural Processes, 35(1-3) pp. 239–250.

Toates, F. (1995). On giving a more active and selective role to consciousness - a commentary on the paper by J. Gray. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18(4) pp. 700–701.

Toates, F. (1995). Animal motivation and cognition. In: Roitblat, H. and Meyer, J-A. eds. Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science. Complex Adaptive Systems. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 435–464.

Toates, F. (1995). Stress - Conceptual and Biological Aspects. Chichester: Wiley.


Toates, F. (1994). Comparing motivational systems - An incentive motivation perspective. In: Legg, C. R. and Booth, D. eds. Appetite: Neural and Behavioural Bases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 305–327.

Toates, F. (1994). What is cognitive and what is not cognitive? In: Cliff, D.; Husbands, P.; Meyer, J-A. and Wilson, S. W. eds. From Animals to Animats 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Complex Adaptive Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, pp. 102–107.

Toates, F. (1994). Hierarchies of control - Changing weightings of levels. In: Rodrigues, M. and Lee, M. H. eds. Perceptual Control Theory. Aberystwyth: University of Wales, pp. 71–86.


Toates, F. and Jensen, P. (1993). Who needs 'behavioural needs'? Motivational aspects of the needs of animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 37(2) pp. 161–181.


Toates, F. and Jensen, P. (1991). Ethological and psychological models of motivation. In: Meyer, J-A. and Wilson, S. W. eds. From Animals to Animats Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Complex Adaptive Systems. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 194–205.


Toates, F. (1990). Broadening the welfare index - A commentary on the paper by Dawkins. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13(1) pp. 40–41.

Toates, F. M. (1990). Obsessional Thoughts and Behaviour. Wellingborough: Thorsons.

Toates, F. and Donohue, T. (1990). Spontaneous and learned turning behaviour in food- or water-restricted hooded rats. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42B(2) pp. 153–173.

Toates, F. (1990). Biological perspectives. In: Roth, I. ed. Introduction to Psychology, Volume 1. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 191–249.

Toates, F. and Slack, I. (1990). Behaviourism and its consequences. In: Roth, I. ed. Introduction to Psychology, Volume 1. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 250–313.


Toates, F. M. (1988). Motivation and emotion from a biological perspective. In: Hamilton, V.; Bower, G. H. and Frijda, N. H. eds. Cognitive Perspectives on Emotion and Motivation. NATO ASI. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 3–35.


Toates, F. and Rowland, N. eds. (1987). Hunger and Thirst. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Singer, B. and Toates, F. (1987). Sexual motivation. The Journal of Sex Research, 23(4) pp. 481–501.

Toates, F. M. (1987). The relevance of models of motivation and learning to animal welfare. In: Wiepkema, P. R. and van Adrichem, P. W. M. eds. Biology of Stress in Farm Animals: An Integrative Approach. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, 42. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 153–186.

Toates, F. M. and Evans, R. A. S. (1987). The application of theory, modelling and simulation to feeding and drinking. In: Toates, F. M. and Rowland, N. eds. Hunger and Thirst. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 531–562.

Toates, F. M. (1987). Hunger and thirst motivational control mechanisms. In: Singh, M. G. ed. Systems and Control Encyclopedia. Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 2209–2214.


Toates, F. M. (1986). Biological Foundations of Behaviour. Open Guides to Psychology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Toates, F. M. (1986). Motivational Systems. Problems in the Behavioural Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, J.; Cooper, A.; Toates, F. and Zeldin, D. eds. (1986). Science in Schools. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.


Toates, Frederick (1984). Models yes; homunculus, no - a commentary on the paper by Professor Skinner. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7(4) pp. 650–651.

Toates, F. (1984). What is goal-directed behaviour. Biological Psychology, 18 pp. 304–305.

Toates, F. M. (1984). The behaviourist approach to motivation and learning. The New Psychologist


Toates, F. M. (1983). Theories of ingestion - A reply to Houston. Appetite, 4(2) pp. 66–67.

Toates, F. M. (1983). Control theory and feeding. Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, 5 pp. 48–56.

Toates, F. (1983). Exploration as a motivational system - a Cognitive-incentive model. In: Archer, J. and Birke, L. eds. Exploration in Animals and Humans. Wokingham: Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK).

Toates, F. M. (1983). Models of Motivation. In: Halliday, T. R. and Slater, P. J. B. eds. Causes and Effect. Animal Behaviour, 1. New York: W. H. Freeman, pp. 168–196.


Toates, F. M. (1982). Hysteresis and habit - A reply to Walsh. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5(2) pp. 275–276.

Toates, F. M. (1982). The rat as hedonist - A systems approach (a commentary on the paper by Panksepp). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5 pp. 446–447.

Toates, F. M. and Rose, S. P. R. (1982). Caccia alle molecole della memoria. In: Mondadori, Arnoldo ed. Enciclopedia della Scienza e della Tecnica. Milan: Mondadori, pp. 258–263.

Toates, F. M. and Birke, L. I. A. (1982). Motivation: A New Perspective on Some Old Ideas. In: Bateson, P. P. G. and Klopfer, P. H. eds. Ontogeny. Perspectives in Ethology, 5. New York: Plenum, pp. 191–241.


Toates, F. M. (1981). Towards a real systems theory of feeding - a commentary on the paper by Le Magnen. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4(4) p. 592.

Toates, F. M. (1981). The control of ingestive behaviour by internal and external factors - A theoretical review. Appetite, 2 pp. 35–50.


Toates, F. M. and Halliday, T. eds. (1980). Analysis of motivational processes. London: Academic Press.

Toates, F. M. (1980). Animal Behaviour - A Systems Approach. Chichester: Wiley.

Toates, F. M. (1980). The modelling of incentive motivation processes - A reply to Bourbon and Sinclair. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3 pp. 465–468.

Toates, F. M. (1980). A systems approach to sexual behaviour. In: Toates, F. M. and Halliday, T. R. eds. Analysis of Motivational Processes. London: Academic Press, pp. 319–338.


Bowles, M. and Toates, F. M. (1979). Time-sharing or competition? Animal Behaviour, 27 pp. 959–960.

Toates, F. M.; Cooper, S. J. and Sweeney, K. F. (1979). Effects of spiperone on feeding performance in a food-preference test. Psychopharmacology, 63 pp. 301–305.

Toates, F. (1979). Water and energy in the interaction of thirst and hunger. In: Brown, K. and Cooper, S. eds. Chemical Influences on Behaviour. London: Academic Press, pp. 135–200.


Booth, D. A. and Toates, F. M. (1978). No paradox in the control of energy intake. Nature, 275 pp. 146–147.

Toates, F. M. and O'Rourke, C. (1978). Computer simulation of male rat sexual behaviour. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 16(1) pp. 98–104.

Toates, F. M. (1978). A circadian rhythm of hoarding in the hamster. Animal Behaviour, 26 pp. 368–380.

Toates, F. M. and Archer, J. (1978). A comparative review of motivational systems using classical control theory. Animal Behaviour, 26 pp. 368–380.

Toates, F. M. (1978). A physiological control theory of the hunger- thirst interaction. In: Booth, D. A. ed. Hunger Models: Computable Theory of Feeding Control. London: Academic Press, pp. 347–373.


Toates, F. M. (1977). The control of water excretion by anti-diuretic hormone: Some aspects of modelling the system. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 15(6)

Toates, F. M. and Walker, Peter (1977). Perception as the output of a proportional feedback controller: Evidence from the stabilized image. Perception, 6(3) pp. 355–356.

Toates, F. M. (1977). Gerbil drinking patterms. Animal Behaviour, 25 p. 782.


Booth, D. A.; Toates, F. M. and Platt, S. V. (1976). Control system for hunger and its implication in animals and man. In: Novin, D.; Wyrwicka, W. and Bray, G. A. eds. Hunger: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. New York: Raven Press, pp. 127–143.


Toates, F. M. and Booth, D. A. (1975). Feeding analogues - A reply to Morrison. Nature, 255 p. 169.

Toates, F. M. (1975). Control Theory in Biology and Experimental Psychology. London: Hutchinson Educational Ltd.


Toates, F. M. and Booth, D. A. (1974). Control of food intake by energy supply. Nature, 251 pp. 710–711.

Toates, F. M. and Booth, D. A. (1974). A physiological control theory of food intake in the rat. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 3(6) pp. 442–444.

Toates, F. M. (1974). Vergence eye movements. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 37(1) pp. 153–214.

Toates, F. M. (1974). Computer simulation and the homeostatic control of behaviour. In: McFarland, D. J. ed. Motivational Control Systems Analysis. London: Academic Press, pp. 407–426.


Toates, F. M. and Oatley, K. (1973). Osmotic inhibition of eating as a subtractive process. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 82(2) pp. 268–277.


Toates, F. M. (1972). Accommodation function of the human eye. Physiological Reviews, 52(4) pp. 828–863.

Toates, F. M. (1972). A Model of an Autonomic Effector Control Loop. Measurement and Control, 5(9) pp. 354–357.

Panksepp, J.; Toates, F. M. and Oatley, K. (1972). Extinction induced drinking in hungry rats. Animal Behaviour, 20(3) pp. 493–498.

Toates, F. M. and Oatley, K. (1972). Inhibition of ad libitum eating by salt injections and water deprivation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24(2) pp. 215–224.

Toates, F. M. (1972). Studies on the control of accommodation and convergence. Measurement and Control, 5(2) pp. 58–61.


Oatley, K. and Toates, F. M. (1971). Frequency analysis of the thirst control system. Nature, 232 pp. 562–564.

Toates, F. M. (1971). The accommodation control system of the human eye. Experimental Eye Research, 11(1) pp. 142–143.

Oatley, K. and Toates, F. M. (1971). Inhibition of eating by osmotic thirst and disinhibition by drinking. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on the regulation of food and water intake

Toates, F. M. (1971). The effect of pretraining on schedule induced polydipsia. Psychonomic Science, 23(3) pp. 219–220.


Toates, F. M. (1970). A model of accommodation. Vision Research, 10(10) pp. 1069–1076.

Toates, F. M. and Oatley, K. (1970). Computer simulation of thirst and water balance. Medical and biological engineering, 8(1) pp. 71–87.


Oatley, K. and Toates, F. M. (1969). The passage of food through the gut of rats and its uptake of fluid. Psychonomic Science, 16(5) pp. 225–226.

Toates, F. M. (1969). The cue for conjugate and disjunctive eye movements. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 53(6) pp. 422–424.

Toates, F. M. (1969). Accommodation and Convergence in the Human Eye: A Control Analysis. Measurement and Control, 2(3) T29-T33.


Toates, F. M. (1968). The Control of the Eye's Intrinsic Muscles: A Multivariable Optimum Performance Control System. Measurement and Control, 1(8) T.129-T.132.

This list was generated on Thu Jul 9 04:27:30 2020 BST.

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU