The Open UniversitySkip to content

Transport responses to an economic blockade: necessity nudges Cuba towards a less transport intensive society

Warren, J. P. and Enoch, M. P. (2003). Transport responses to an economic blockade: necessity nudges Cuba towards a less transport intensive society. Traffic Engineering & Control, 44(8) pp. 278–281.

Full text available as:
PDF (Proof) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (3MB) | Preview
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


In transport terms, the Caribbean island nation of Cuba is unique because for the past forty years it has been subjected to an economic blockade by its erstwhile dominant trading partner, the United States. Furthermore, this economic pressure was exacerbated in the early 1990s with the political and economic collapse of the Former Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Socialist countries which had replaced the United States as Cuba’s principal trading partners. These events have led to a transformation in how goods and people are moved, not least because of a huge reduction in the amount of hard currency available to pay for fuel, vehicles and spare parts. This resulted in a number of innovative behavioural and technological outcomes.
In short, the impact of the post-Soviet State of Emergency on travel patterns in Cuba meant that Cuban imports as a whole fell by 75%, from 8.1bn Cuban Pesos in 1989 to 2.0bn Cuban Pesos in 1993, while over the same period in the transport sector, fuel (i.e. oil) imports were cut by 76%, and imports of transport equipment fell by 86%.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2003 Not known
ISSN: 0041-0683
Extra Information: This short article describes the transport situation in Cuba and specifically Havana during the early 1990's until 2002. All surface modes of transport are described along with policy measures to ensure mobility for the society.
Keywords: Cuba; transport; bus; cycle; mobility; animal traction; transport policy; blockade
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Engineering and Innovation
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Research Group: Design and Innovation
Item ID: 9481
Depositing User: James Warren
Date Deposited: 04 Jan 2008
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2018 18:04
Share this page:

Download history for this item

These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually. Algorithmic methods have been applied in an attempt to remove automated downloads from the displayed statistics but no guarantee can be made as to the accuracy of the figures.

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU