Long‐term care facilities' response to the COVID ‐19 pandemic: An international, cross‐sectional survey

Eltaybani, Sameh; Igarashi, Ayumi; Cal, Ayse; Lai, Claudia K. Y.; Carrasco, Cristina; Sari, Dianis Wulan; Cho, Eunhee; Haugan, Gørill; Bravo, Jorge D.; Abouzeid, Nesreen A.; Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Isaramalai, Sang‐arun; Dawood, Shaimaa Samir; Pappas, Yannis; Abd El Moneam, Abeer Abd El Galeel; Rodríguez, Ana Beatriz; Alqahtani, Bader A.; Pereira, Catarina Lino Neto; Jenssen, Cathrine Ragna Solheim; Yu, Doris S. F.; Ahmed, Fatma Refaat; Mendes, Felismina Rosa P.; Randhawa, Gurch; Ahmed, Hanaa Abou El‐soued Hussein; Suzuki, Haruno; Prambudi, Hery; Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Waluyo, Imam; Nurbaeti, Irma; Vseteckova, Jitka; Horne, Joanna Kathryn; Liu, Justina Yw; Ingstad, Kari; Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Grant, Louise; Abd El Moniem, Maha Mohammed; Sakka, Mariko; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Ezzelregal; Subu, Muhammad Arsyad; Kentzer, Nichola; Almadani, Noura A.; Tomas‐Carus, Pablo; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus; Indarwati, Retno; Maneerat, Sonthaya; Chien, Wai Tong; Amamiya, Yuko; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley and Yamamoto‐Mitani, Noriko (2024). Long‐term care facilities' response to the COVID ‐19 pandemic: An international, cross‐sectional survey. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 80(1) pp. 350–365.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15785

Abstract

Aims
To (i) assess the adherence of long‐term care (LTC) facilities to the COVID‐19 prevention and control recommendations, (ii) identify predictors of this adherence and (iii) examine the association between the adherence level and the impact of the pandemic on selected unfavourable conditions.

Design
Cross‐sectional survey.

Methods
Managers (n = 212) and staff (n = 2143) of LTC facilities (n = 223) in 13 countries/regions (Brazil, Egypt, England, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Thailand and Turkey) evaluated the adherence of LTC facilities to COVID‐19 prevention and control recommendations and the impact of the pandemic on unfavourable conditions related to staff, residents and residents' families. The characteristics of participants and LTC facilities were also gathered. Data were collected from April to October 2021. The study was reported following the STROBE guidelines.

Results
The adherence was significantly higher among facilities with more pre‐pandemic in‐service education on infection control and easier access to information early in the pandemic. Residents' feelings of loneliness and feeling down were the most affected conditions by the pandemic. More psychological support to residents was associated with fewer residents' aggressive behaviours, and more psychological support to staff was associated with less work–life imbalance.

Conclusions
Pre‐pandemic preparedness significantly shaped LTC facilities' response to the pandemic. Adequate psychological support to residents and staff might help mitigate the negative impacts of infection outbreaks.

Impact
This is the first study to comprehensively examine the adherence of LTC facilities to COVID‐19 prevention and control recommendations. The results demonstrated that the adherence level was significantly related to pre‐pandemic preparedness and that adequate psychological support to staff and residents was significantly associated with less negative impacts of the pandemic on LTC facilities' staff and residents. The results would help LTC facilities prepare for and respond to future infection outbreaks.

Patient or public contribution
No Patient or Public Contribution.

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